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Chi (letter)

Chi /ˈk, ˈx/ (listen)[1][2] (uppercase Χ, lowercase χ; Greek: χῖ) is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet.

Greek

 
The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel, with a cross-shaped chi

Pronunciation

Ancient Greek

Its value in Ancient Greek was an aspirated velar stop /kʰ/ (in the Western Greek alphabet: /ks/).

Koine Greek

In Koine Greek and later dialects it became a fricative ([x]/[ç]) along with Θ and Φ.

Modern Greek

In Modern Greek, it has two distinct pronunciations: In front of high or front vowels (/e/ or /i/) it is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative [ç], as in German ich or like the h in some pronunciations of the English words hew and human. In front of low or back vowels (/a/, /o/ or /u/) and consonants, it is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative ([x]), as in German ach or Spanish j.

Transliteration

Chi is romanized as ⟨ch⟩ in most systematic transliteration conventions, but sometimes ⟨kh⟩ is used.[3] In addition, in Modern Greek, it is often also romanized as ⟨h⟩ or ⟨x⟩ in informal practice.

Greek numeral

In the system of Greek numerals, it has a value of 600.

Xi

In ancient times, some local forms of the Greek alphabet used the chi instead of xi to represent the /ks/ sound. This was borrowed into the early Latin language, which led to the use of the letter X for the same sound in Latin, and many modern languages that use the Latin alphabet.

Cyrillic

Chi was also included in the Cyrillic script as the letter Х, with the phonetic value /x/ or /h/.

International Phonetic Alphabet

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, the minuscule chi is the symbol for the voiceless uvular fricative.

Chiasmus

Chi is the basis for the name literary chiastic structure and the name of chiasmus.

Symbolism

In Plato's Timaeus, it is explained that the two bands that form the soul of the world cross each other like the letter Χ. Plato's analogy, along with several other examples of chi as a symbol occur in Thomas Browne's discourse The Garden of Cyrus (1658).

Chi or X is often used to abbreviate the name Christ, as in the holiday Christmas (Xmas). When fused within a single typespace with the Greek letter rho, it is called the labarum and used to represent the person of Jesus Christ.

Character encodings

Greek chi

Character information
Preview Χ χ
Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI MODIFIER LETTER SMALL CHI GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER CHI CHI RHO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 935 U+03A7 967 U+03C7 7521 U+1D61 7530 U+1D6A 9767 U+2627
UTF-8 206 167 CE A7 207 135 CF 87 225 181 161 E1 B5 A1 225 181 170 E1 B5 AA 226 152 167 E2 98 A7
Numeric character reference Χ Χ χ χ ᵡ ᵡ ᵪ ᵪ ☧ ☧
Named character reference Χ χ
DOS Greek 148 94 173 AD
DOS Greek-2 210 D2 243 F3
Windows 1253 214 D6 246 F6
TeX \chi

[4]

Coptic khi

Character information
Preview
Unicode name COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER KHI COPTIC SMALL LETTER KHI COPTIC SYMBOL KHI RHO
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 11436 U+2CAC 11437 U+2CAD 11497 U+2CE9
UTF-8 226 178 172 E2 B2 AC 226 178 173 E2 B2 AD 226 179 169 E2 B3 A9
Numeric character reference Ⲭ Ⲭ ⲭ ⲭ ⳩ ⳩

Latin chi

Character information
Preview
Unicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW RIGHT RING LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW LEFT SERIF
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 42931 U+A7B3 43859 U+AB53 43860 U+AB54 43861 U+AB55
UTF-8 234 158 179 EA 9E B3 234 173 147 EA AD 93 234 173 148 EA AD 94 234 173 149 EA AD 95
Numeric character reference Ꭓ Ꭓ ꭓ ꭓ ꭔ ꭔ ꭕ ꭕ

Mathematical chi

Character information
Preview 𝚾 𝛘 𝛸 𝜒 𝜲 𝝌
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLD
CAPITAL CHI
MATHEMATICAL BOLD
SMALL CHI
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
CAPITAL CHI
MATHEMATICAL ITALIC
SMALL CHI
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
CAPITAL CHI
MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALIC
SMALL CHI
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 120510 U+1D6BE 120536 U+1D6D8 120568 U+1D6F8 120594 U+1D712 120626 U+1D732 120652 U+1D74C
UTF-8 240 157 154 190 F0 9D 9A BE 240 157 155 152 F0 9D 9B 98 240 157 155 184 F0 9D 9B B8 240 157 156 146 F0 9D 9C 92 240 157 156 178 F0 9D 9C B2 240 157 157 140 F0 9D 9D 8C
UTF-16 55349 57022 D835 DEBE 55349 57048 D835 DED8 55349 57080 D835 DEF8 55349 57106 D835 DF12 55349 57138 D835 DF32 55349 57164 D835 DF4C
Numeric character reference 𝚾 𝚾 𝛘 𝛘 𝛸 𝛸 𝜒 𝜒 𝜲 𝜲 𝝌 𝝌


Character information
Preview 𝝬 𝞆 𝞦 𝟀
Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD CAPITAL CHI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD SMALL CHI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC CAPITAL CHI
MATHEMATICAL SANS-SERIF
BOLD ITALIC SMALL CHI
Encodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex
Unicode 120684 U+1D76C 120710 U+1D786 120742 U+1D7A6 120768 U+1D7C0
UTF-8 240 157 157 172 F0 9D 9D AC 240 157 158 134 F0 9D 9E 86 240 157 158 166 F0 9D 9E A6 240 157 159 128 F0 9D 9F 80
UTF-16 55349 57196 D835 DF6C 55349 57222 D835 DF86 55349 57254 D835 DFA6 55349 57280 D835 DFC0
Numeric character reference 𝝬 𝝬 𝞆 𝞆 𝞦 𝞦 𝟀 𝟀

These characters are used only as mathematical symbols. Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters, with markup and formatting to indicate text style.

Math and science

In statistics, the term chi-squared or   has various uses, including the chi-squared distribution, the chi-squared test, and chi-squared target models.

In algebraic topology, Chi is used to represent the Euler characteristic of a surface.

In neuroanatomy, crossings of peripheral nerves (such as the optic chiasm) are named for the letter Chi because of its Χ-shape.[5]

In chemistry, the mole fraction[6][7] and electronegativity[8] may be denoted by the lowercase  .

In physics,   denotes electric or magnetic susceptibility.

In rhetoric, both chiastic structure (a literary device) and the figure of speech Chiasmus derive from their names from the shape of the letter Chi.

In mechanical engineering, chi is used as a symbol for the reduction factor of relevant buckling loads in the EN 1993, a European Standard for the design of steel structures.

In graph theory, a lowercase chi is used to represent a graph's chromatic number.

See also

References

  1. ^ "chi". The Chambers Dictionary (9th ed.). Chambers. 2003. ISBN 0-550-10105-5.
  2. ^ "chi". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Unicode Code Charts: Greek and Coptic (Range: 0370-03FF)
  5. ^ Asimov, Isaac (1963). The Human Brain. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  6. ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2008). Chemistry (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 201. ISBN 978-0547125329.
  7. ^ Rickard, James N. Spencer, George M. Bodner, Lyman H. (2010). Chemistry : structure and dynamics (5th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. p. 357. ISBN 9780470587119.
  8. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version: (2006–) "Electronegativity". doi:10.1351/goldbook.E01990

Chi (letter)
letter, listen, uppercase, lowercase, greek, χῖ, 22nd, letter, greek, alphabet, contents, greek, pronunciation, ancient, greek, koine, greek, modern, greek, transliteration, greek, numeral, cyrillic, international, phonetic, alphabet, chiasmus, symbolism, char. Chi ˈ k aɪ ˈ x iː listen 1 2 uppercase X lowercase x Greek xῖ is the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet Contents 1 Greek 1 1 Pronunciation 1 1 1 Ancient Greek 1 1 2 Koine Greek 1 1 3 Modern Greek 1 2 Transliteration 1 3 Greek numeral 1 4 Xi 2 Cyrillic 3 International Phonetic Alphabet 4 Chiasmus 5 Symbolism 6 Character encodings 6 1 Greek chi 6 2 Coptic khi 6 3 Latin chi 6 4 Mathematical chi 7 Math and science 8 See also 9 ReferencesGreek The Greek alphabet on a black figure vessel with a cross shaped chi Pronunciation Ancient Greek Its value in Ancient Greek was an aspirated velar stop kʰ in the Western Greek alphabet ks Koine Greek In Koine Greek and later dialects it became a fricative x c along with 8 and F Modern Greek In Modern Greek it has two distinct pronunciations In front of high or front vowels e or i it is pronounced as a voiceless palatal fricative c as in German ich or like the h in some pronunciations of the English words hew and human In front of low or back vowels a o or u and consonants it is pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative x as in German ach or Spanish j Transliteration Chi is romanized as ch in most systematic transliteration conventions but sometimes kh is used 3 In addition in Modern Greek it is often also romanized as h or x in informal practice Greek numeral In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 600 Xi In ancient times some local forms of the Greek alphabet used the chi instead of xi to represent the ks sound This was borrowed into the early Latin language which led to the use of the letter X for the same sound in Latin and many modern languages that use the Latin alphabet CyrillicChi was also included in the Cyrillic script as the letter H with the phonetic value x or h International Phonetic AlphabetIn the International Phonetic Alphabet the minuscule chi is the symbol for the voiceless uvular fricative ChiasmusChi is the basis for the name literary chiastic structure and the name of chiasmus SymbolismIn Plato s Timaeus it is explained that the two bands that form the soul of the world cross each other like the letter X Plato s analogy along with several other examples of chi as a symbol occur in Thomas Browne s discourse The Garden of Cyrus 1658 Chi or X is often used to abbreviate the name Christ as in the holiday Christmas Xmas When fused within a single typespace with the Greek letter rho it is called the labarum and used to represent the person of Jesus Christ Character encodingsGreek chi Character information Preview X x ᵡ ᵪ Unicode name GREEK CAPITAL LETTER CHI GREEK SMALL LETTER CHI MODIFIER LETTER SMALL CHI GREEK SUBSCRIPT SMALL LETTER CHI CHI RHOEncodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hexUnicode 935 U 03A7 967 U 03C7 7521 U 1D61 7530 U 1D6A 9767 U 2627UTF 8 206 167 CE A7 207 135 CF 87 225 181 161 E1 B5 A1 225 181 170 E1 B5 AA 226 152 167 E2 98 A7Numeric character reference amp 935 wbr amp x3A7 wbr amp 967 wbr amp x3C7 wbr amp 7521 wbr amp x1D61 wbr amp 7530 wbr amp x1D6A wbr amp 9767 wbr amp x2627 wbr Named character reference amp Chi amp chi DOS Greek 148 94 173 ADDOS Greek 2 210 D2 243 F3Windows 1253 214 D6 246 F6TeX chi 4 Coptic khi Character information Preview Ⲭ ⲭ Unicode name COPTIC CAPITAL LETTER KHI COPTIC SMALL LETTER KHI COPTIC SYMBOL KHI RHOEncodings decimal hex dec hex dec hexUnicode 11436 U 2CAC 11437 U 2CAD 11497 U 2CE9UTF 8 226 178 172 E2 B2 AC 226 178 173 E2 B2 AD 226 179 169 E2 B3 A9Numeric character reference amp 11436 wbr amp x2CAC wbr amp 11437 wbr amp x2CAD wbr amp 11497 wbr amp x2CE9 wbr Latin chi Character information Preview Ꭓ ꭓ ꭔ ꭕUnicode name LATIN CAPITAL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW RIGHT RING LATIN SMALL LETTER CHI WITH LOW LEFT SERIFEncodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hexUnicode 42931 U A7B3 43859 U AB53 43860 U AB54 43861 U AB55UTF 8 234 158 179 EA 9E B3 234 173 147 EA AD 93 234 173 148 EA AD 94 234 173 149 EA AD 95Numeric character reference amp 42931 wbr amp xA7B3 wbr amp 43859 wbr amp xAB53 wbr amp 43860 wbr amp xAB54 wbr amp 43861 wbr amp xAB55 wbr Mathematical chi Character information Preview 𝚾 𝛘 𝛸 𝜒 𝜲 𝝌Unicode name MATHEMATICAL BOLDCAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLDSMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL ITALICCAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL ITALICSMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALICCAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL BOLD ITALICSMALL CHIEncodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hex dec hexUnicode 120510 U 1D6BE 120536 U 1D6D8 120568 U 1D6F8 120594 U 1D712 120626 U 1D732 120652 U 1D74CUTF 8 240 157 154 190 F0 9D 9A BE 240 157 155 152 F0 9D 9B 98 240 157 155 184 F0 9D 9B B8 240 157 156 146 F0 9D 9C 92 240 157 156 178 F0 9D 9C B2 240 157 157 140 F0 9D 9D 8CUTF 16 55349 57022 D835 DEBE 55349 57048 D835 DED8 55349 57080 D835 DEF8 55349 57106 D835 DF12 55349 57138 D835 DF32 55349 57164 D835 DF4CNumeric character reference amp 120510 wbr amp x1D6BE wbr amp 120536 wbr amp x1D6D8 wbr amp 120568 wbr amp x1D6F8 wbr amp 120594 wbr amp x1D712 wbr amp 120626 wbr amp x1D732 wbr amp 120652 wbr amp x1D74C wbr Character information Preview 𝝬 𝞆 𝞦 𝟀Unicode name MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIFBOLD CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIFBOLD SMALL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIFBOLD ITALIC CAPITAL CHI MATHEMATICAL SANS SERIFBOLD ITALIC SMALL CHIEncodings decimal hex dec hex dec hex dec hexUnicode 120684 U 1D76C 120710 U 1D786 120742 U 1D7A6 120768 U 1D7C0UTF 8 240 157 157 172 F0 9D 9D AC 240 157 158 134 F0 9D 9E 86 240 157 158 166 F0 9D 9E A6 240 157 159 128 F0 9D 9F 80UTF 16 55349 57196 D835 DF6C 55349 57222 D835 DF86 55349 57254 D835 DFA6 55349 57280 D835 DFC0Numeric character reference amp 120684 wbr amp x1D76C wbr amp 120710 wbr amp x1D786 wbr amp 120742 wbr amp x1D7A6 wbr amp 120768 wbr amp x1D7C0 wbr These characters are used only as mathematical symbols Stylized Greek text should be encoded using the normal Greek letters with markup and formatting to indicate text style Math and scienceIn statistics the term chi squared or x 2 displaystyle chi 2 has various uses including the chi squared distribution the chi squared test and chi squared target models In algebraic topology Chi is used to represent the Euler characteristic of a surface In neuroanatomy crossings of peripheral nerves such as the optic chiasm are named for the letter Chi because of its X shape 5 In chemistry the mole fraction 6 7 and electronegativity 8 may be denoted by the lowercase x displaystyle chi In physics x displaystyle chi denotes electric or magnetic susceptibility In rhetoric both chiastic structure a literary device and the figure of speech Chiasmus derive from their names from the shape of the letter Chi In mechanical engineering chi is used as a symbol for the reduction factor of relevant buckling loads in the EN 1993 a European Standard for the design of steel structures In graph theory a lowercase chi is used to represent a graph s chromatic number See also Look up X or x in Wiktionary the free dictionary Chi disambiguation H h Kha Cyrillic References chi The Chambers Dictionary 9th ed Chambers 2003 ISBN 0 550 10105 5 chi Oxford English Dictionary Online ed Oxford University Press Subscription or participating institution membership required Encyclopaedia Britannica Unicode Code Charts Greek and Coptic Range 0370 03FF Asimov Isaac 1963 The Human Brain Boston Houghton Mifflin Zumdahl Steven S 2008 Chemistry 8th ed Cengage Learning p 201 ISBN 978 0547125329 Rickard James N Spencer George M Bodner Lyman H 2010 Chemistry structure and dynamics 5th ed Hoboken N J Wiley p 357 ISBN 9780470587119 IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology 2nd ed the Gold Book 1997 Online corrected version 2006 Electronegativity doi 10 1351 goldbook E01990 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Chi letter amp oldid 1127356291, wikipedia, wiki, book, books, library,

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